LiDAR remote sensing
In this module you will gain a detailed understanding of the advantages and challenges of Earth observation using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems. Compared to other types of remote sensing data, the data from active Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems is of particular importance for local studies, where the 3D component (height) of objects is of relevance. Commonly LiDAR data is applied it in the field of digital terrain modelling, in forestry – e.g. for canopy height assessment, or urban structure applications. LiDAR embraces a range of active remote sensing systems mounted on different platforms, which provide valuable information for characterization of horizontal and vertical structure of the earth surface by measuring the travel time of laser pulses in visible and near-infrared spectral domains. The quality of scanning depends on the nature of the LIDAR system (discrete-return or full waveform) as well as on a set of other terrain- and data-driven factors. This course provides you with an overview on the theory and applications of LiDAR data, with a particular focus on airborne laser scanning. Following the initial theoretical sections on the principles and basic characteristics of LiDAR data, diverse practical steps and exercises will be implemented to provide real-world examples to illustrate how the LiDAR point clouds can be applied to extract information on terrain, surface and vegetation. These information will be further employed to model vegetation structural attributes on multiple spatial scales ranging from single trees to landscape levels.
Block 1: Introduction to LiDAR (how does laser scanning work?)
- Reminder on general remote sensing issues: difference between active and passive sensing
- History of LiDAR measurements
- Basics of LiDAR data measurements (platforms, sensors)
- Airborne vs. spaceborne LiDAR: history, applications and data access
- Measurement of travel time of laser light (pulsed time of flight)
- On the concept of “structure”: why a third dimension is crucial?
Block 2: Principles of LiDAR measurements
- Platform navigation, orientation and positioning
- Difference between types of data acquisitions: discrete return and echo waveform
- The recorded parameters: elevation, height, signal intensity and co.
- The concept of „single-pulse“ vs. „multiple-pulse“
- How are the incoming returns recorded? first come- first served!
- Terrestrial LiDAR measurement: one position, rotating scanner
- Data formats and big data-management: each byte matters!
Block 3: Elevation models:
- General thoughts: why are the elevation models essential?
- Digital terrain models
- Digital surface models
- Normalized DSM (Canopy height models)
- Application fields: Forest, landscape and habitat representations
- Magnified focus on Forest (basic and derived parameters): Diameter at breast height, height, tree type proportions, tree type mapping, crown closure, stem count, growing stock und aboveground biomass
- Single tree measurements
- Urban: City models, roof top and building footprints
Block 4: Exercises in Open-Source domain of LiDAR data processing (Fusion/LDV, LASTools, R)
- Exercises on point cloud processing
- Import, export, visualizations and rendering
- Sample measurements, single tree measurements and associated tasks
- Elevation models
- Data trimming, cropping, smoothing and generalizing
- Catalog and descriptive communication
- Extraction of metrics for modeling purposes
- Thoughts on metrics
- Intensity: yes or no?
- Multi-scale metric extraction
- Multi-source metric extraction
- Class works and workshops (CIP-Pool/Homework)
- Literature review, discussion groups and public presentations
Coding examples and individual work will be covered
Various software programs will be used, but mainly OpenSource software such as R.
Different techniques will be introduced and practically applied.
The content of scientific with regard to the audience will be discussed.
General Course News and Updates
On Monday, 25th of October the following remote sensing presentation by our EAGLE students will take place: 9am MSc idea presentation by Nils Karges "Exploring spatial relationships of soundscape variables in urbanareas. " (supervisors: Hannes Taubenböck and Jürgen...
Floran Baumgartner will present his M.Sc. thesis "The potential of Sentinel-2 time series for yield estimation of a perennial wild plant mix-ture using machine learning" on Friday 29th of October at 10am. From the abstract: "Monocultures are generally accompanied by...
On Friday 15th of October at 10am we will have the following MSc idea and inno lab presentations: Nestor Gualsaqui - M.Sc. Thesis Idea: "Pre-crop emergence weed mapping using high satellite imagery"supervisor: Dr. Michael Thiel Yomna Eid - Innovation Lab:...
Frederic Schwarzenbacher will defend his M.Sc. thesis on Monday 6th at 3pm. The title is "Habitat suitability modeling for Desert Locust in the Awash River basin: Estimation of the breeding probability based on remote sensing, climatology and environment data" and...
Next Monday, Sept. 20th, at 9:30am the following EAGLE students will present thier MSc. thesis idea or internship: Sofia Garcia:“Estimating socioeconomic variables in Bolivia using satellite-based NTL and electricity consumption data”(Thesis idea, supervisors Hannes...
Belen will defend her M.Sc. thesis “Spatio-temporal patterns of urban expansion among main biomes in Ecuador using LULC data from 1990-2018” on Wednesday 8th of September, 2pm. From the abstract: "Over the past decades, the world has experienced an accelerated...
Ronja Lappe handed in her M.Sc. thesis "Assessing 30 years of coastline dynamics in Vietnam using the Landsat archive"from the abstract: "Almost half of the world’s human population lives in coastal regions, with 40 % less than ten meters above sea level. Due to...
Martin König handed in his thesis with the title “Examining post-fire vegetation recovery with Landsat time series analysis in Olympic National Park (USA)”. Martin used remote sensing and ground collected data to make sense of vegetation recovery patterns for larger...
On Monday 26th of July at 2pm we will have two MSc thesis idea presentations: Jakob Wachter (thesis idea):"Derivation of Snow cover in mountain regions from Webcam and Sentinel Imagery (thesis idea)" - supervisors Dr. Tobias Ullmann and Dr. Mattia Rossi, EURAC...
On Thursday, July 22nd at 2pm we will have the following presentations: Haiyin Ye (thesis idea):"Monitoring gypsy moth outbreak using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data" - supervisors Soyeon bae and Martin Wegmann Christabel Ansah (internship):"Virtual...